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Southern Realm Property Management Llc – Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights from Cluster Data Analysis

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Southern Realm Property Management Llc

Southern Realm Property Management Llc

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By Rachel Pasternack 1, * , Mark Wishnie 2 , Caitlin Clarke 1 , Yangyang Wang 1 , Ethan Belair 1 , Steve Marshall 3 , Hongmei Gu 4 , Prakash Nepal 4 , Franz Dolezal 5 , Guy Lomax 6 , Craig Johnston 7 , Gabriel Felmer 8 , Rodrigo Morales-Vera 9 , Maureen Puettmann 10 and Robyn Van den Huevel 11

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Centro de Biotecnología de Los Recursos Naturales (CENBIO), Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca 3480112, Chile

Received: November 16, 2021 / Revised: December 22, 2021 / Accepted: January 4, 2022 / Published: January 11, 2022

As the need to address climate change becomes increasingly urgent, policymakers, businesses and others are seeking innovative approaches to remove carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere and decarbonize hard-to-reduce sectors. Forests can play a role in reducing atmospheric carbon. However, there is disagreement as to whether forests are most effective at reducing carbon emissions when left alone versus managed for sustainable harvesting and production of wood products. Cross-laminated timber is at the forefront of the mainstream wood movement that allows designers, engineers and other stakeholders to build taller buildings out of wood. Several recent studies have shown that replacing mass timber with steel and concrete in mid-rise buildings can reduce emissions associated with the production, transportation and installation of building materials by 13%-26.5%. However, the prospect of increased use of wood products as a climate solution also raises questions about the impact of increased wood demand on forest carbon stocks, forest health, and the provision of many other social benefits and essential environment that healthy forests. can offer. A holistic assessment of the total climate impact of forest product demand through product substitution, carbon storage in materials, current and future forest carbon stock, and forest area and condition is challenging, but it is important to understand the impact of increased massive wood use on forests and climate, and therefore also on which protective measures might be needed to ensure positive outcomes. To thus assess the potential impacts, both positive and negative, of increased wood use on forest ecosystems and emissions associated with the built environment, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) initiated a Global Wood Mass Impact Assessment (GMTIA ), a five-part assessment, highly collaborative research program focused on understanding the potential benefits and risks of increased demand for solid wood products in forests and identifying appropriate safeguards to ensure positive outcomes.

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Table timber; carbon storage; life cycle analysis; regional demand assessments; shaping global trade; climate change; forest impact assessments; sustainable management of solid wood forests; carbon storage; life cycle analysis; regional demand assessments; shaping global trade; climate change; forest impact assessments; sustainable forest management

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As the need to address climate change becomes increasingly urgent, policymakers, businesses and others are looking for innovative approaches to remove carbon dioxide emissions from the atmosphere and decarbonize hard-to-reduce sectors. Concrete and steel, construction materials whose combined production accounts for approximately 11% of global annual greenhouse gas emissions, present a particular challenge [1]. The global building stock, which is primarily composed of these materials, is projected to double over the next 40 years, effectively adding a built-up area the size of Paris to the planet every week until 2060 [2]. Aligning this projected construction growth with the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement is essential for a climate-stable future. Forests can play a role in reducing atmospheric carbon. However, there is disagreement as to whether forests are most effective at reducing carbon emissions when left alone versus managed for sustainable harvesting and production of wood products.

Timber frame and “post and beam” construction are traditional methods of building construction. Historically, this type of construction has been limited to small buildings such as single-family homes, smaller apartment buildings, and non-residential structures. More recently, there has been a growing interest in building more with wood. A new class of wood products (mass timber) has emerged, allowing timber buildings to be much taller (eg 8-18 storeys), and thus mass timber has the potential to replace some steel building materials and concrete, which today inherently have more. embodied carbon and energy. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is at the forefront of the mass timber movement, which enables designers, engineers and other stakeholders to construct taller timber buildings. CLT panels are made by orthogonally laminating dimensional lumber in alternating layers. Panels generally made of CLT are light but very strong with good fire, seismic and thermal performance [3, 4].

Several recent studies have shown that mass replacement of wood with steel and concrete in mid-rise buildings can reduce emissions associated with manufacturing, transporting and installing building materials by 13-26.5% [5, 6, 7]. Other studies have quantified the amount of carbon stored in bulk wood materials that persists over the useful life of the building and perhaps longer if the materials are reclaimed, reused or reused [8].

However, the prospect of increased use of wood products as a climate solution also raises questions about the impact of increased wood demand on forest carbon stocks, forest health, and the provision of many other social benefits and essential environment that healthy forests. can offer. Increased timber harvesting for mass timber use may increase, decrease or have a neutral impact on forest carbon stock, depending on forest attributes and environmental factors, harvesting and management strategies, spatial and temporal scale taking into account carbon sinks. in the forest ecosystem and the indirect impact on the wider wood products market [9, 10]. For example, increased demand for forest products through sustainable harvesting can expand forest carbon pools by encouraging forest growth and regeneration over time [ 11 , 12 ]. It can stimulate new tree planting and investment in forest management, which can contribute to increased forest growth and inventory [13]. Improved forest management can reduce the risk of wildfires in regions such as the western US [14, 15, 16], which are increasing in intensity, potentially reducing forest carbon stocks and threatening forests and communities. However, increased demand can also have negative impacts if, for example, unsustainable forest management is adopted by changing harvest intensities or rotation durations beyond sustainable levels. The increase in massive wood demand may also have an initial negative impact on forest carbon stocks by increasing production emissions and residues.

Park Cities People August 2022 By People Newspapers

A holistic assessment of the total climate impact of forest product demand through product substitution, carbon storage in materials, current and future forest carbon stock, and forest area and condition is challenging. Several recent studies have attempted to assess the total climate impact of changes in wood demand along the entire value chain at a regional or national level, concluding that improved forest management and a shift to the use of longer-lived wood products would generate net climate benefits in Canada [17] , 18 , 19 , 20 ] and in selected sites in North America [21 , 22] . Other researchers have concluded that the use of long-lived wood products could generate a net negative impact on the climate, excluding the benefits of product substitution [23, 24].

For policymakers, developers and others considering the mass use of wood to achieve climate and policy goals, this lack of clarity can be confusing. In addition, the massive use of wood is expected to increase due to general market forces. For these reasons, it is important to understand the impact of increasing massive timber use on forests and the climate, and therefore on the protective measures that might be needed to ensure positive outcomes.

To assess the potential impacts, both positive and negative, of increased wood use on forest ecosystems and emissions associated with the built environment, The Nature Conservancy (TNC) initiated

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