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Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
With the advent of mobile robots in commercial applications, the path planning problem has gained significant attention from the research community. The optimal path for a mobile robot is measured by various factors such as path length, collision-free space, execution time, and the total number of turns. MEA* is an efficient modification of A* for optimal path planning of mobile robots. RRT*-AB is a sampling-based planner with a fast convergence rate, and better time and space requirements than other sampling-based methods such as RRT*. The purpose of this paper is to review and compare the performance of these planners based on metrics, i.e., path length, execution time, and memory requirements. All planners are tested in structured and complex unstructured environments full of obstacles. The performance plot and statistical analysis show that MEA* requires less memory and computational time than other planners. These advantages of MEA* make it suitable for off-line applications using small robots with limited power and memory resources. Furthermore, the path length performance schemes of MEA* are comparable to RRT*-AB with less execution time in 2D environment. However, RRT*-AB outperforms MEA* on high-dimensional problems due to its inherent suitability for complex problems.
Outcomes Of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation In The Setting Of Acute Kidney Injury And Renal Replacement Therapy
Road planning; finding the way; A*; MEA*, mobile robot; RRT*-AB; optimal behavior path planning; finding the way; A*; MEA*, mobile robot; RRT*-AB; best criteria
Over the past decade, mobile robots have been effectively adapted to perform essential unmanned tasks in various fields. Application areas of path planning algorithms include but are not limited to security, surveillance , planetary exploration , Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) route planning [3, 4], and simulation of molecule . Path planning for mobile robots deals with the possible creation of a path from a starting position to a goal position by avoiding collisions with obstacles in an environment . Canny and Reif  proved that global optimal motion planning is an NP problem. Therefore, it is often preferable to have a feasible solution than to achieve excellence. The optimal path criteria for mobile robots are usually based on one or more features such as the shortest distance, low risk, smoothness, maximum area coverage, and low energy requirements considering various factors. application restriction [3, 6]. A quality road may be desirable based on the type of application. For example, the shortest route is preferred for a robotic vehicle on the road, while the smoothness of the path is required in the case of rough terrain . Time and memory-efficient mobile robot path-planning can also save mobile robot wear and capital expenditure .
Many planners are used for mobile robots such as potential field, visibility graph, evolutionary meta-heuristic methods, sampling-based methods, and grid-based methods . Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Classic methods such as potential field and visibility graphs are complex, and computationally expensive to deal with real-time applications and high-dimensional problems. Nature-inspired meta-heuristic methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) , and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm  are suitable for optimizing multi-objective planning problems. A major disadvantage of these methods is pre-mature convergence, trapping a local optimum, high computational cost, and complex data mapping [3, 11, 12, 13]. Recently, reinforcement learning has also emerged, but is more suitable for robots learning new skills than for path planning applications [ 14 , 15 ]. Sampling-based Planning (SBP) approaches such as RRT* (Rapid exploration of Random Tree Star)  are successful for high-dimensional complex problems . A major limitation of sampling-based algorithms is their slow convergence rate [3, 13]. RRT*-AB  is a new sampling-based planner that solves this issue and improves the convergence rate compared to other SBP variants . Grid-based methods are another type of planning technique that can be used in low-dimensional space. A*  is a popular grid-based algorithm and is generally preferred for solving low-dimensional mobile robot planning problems [1, 4, 18, 19]. However, A* does not always find the fastest path because the path is restricted by the edges of the grid. Its memory requirements also expand exponentially for complex problems [4, 6]. Memory-Efficient A* (MEA*)  is a variant of A* that addresses these limitations and its performance is also comparable to A* when compared to other variants . However, there is always a trade-off between processing time and stability.
This paper is an extended version of the work presented in  with a detailed evaluation of the performance parameters for MEA *. The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative analysis of MEA*  with A*, HPA*, RRT, RRT*, and state-of-the-art sampling-based planning algorithm RRT*-AB [12 ] in a 2D environment according to defined metrics. The main focus of the discussion of the results is MEA* and RRT*-AB. The assumption of the application for mobile robots is as follows: 1. The environment is closed and known to the autonomous mobile robot. 2. Environmental barriers are relentless. 3. Planners perform off-line, i.e., they do not rely on online sensor capabilities. The remainder of the paper is as follows: Related work is described in Section 2. Section 3 presents the methodology. Section 4 describes the simulation results followed by a conclusion in Section 5.
Human‐like Motion Planning For Autonomous Parking Based On Revised Bidirectional Rapidly‐exploring Random Tree* With Reeds‐shepp Curve
Grid-based planners map the configuration space into a grid formation by dividing it into cells. These planners use discrete techniques for path planning. They form a route as a series of adjacent cells . Dijkstra  and Extended Dijkstra  are early grid-based methods but they are not practical for real-time path planning applications due to poor search efficiency . Variants of Dijkstra led to a popular grid-based planner named A* . However, the efficiency of A* is highly dependent on the heuristic cost function. In addition, a path created by A* may be longer than the real shortest paths around because of the artificially restricted headings of the edges, i.e., several 45 degrees, as shown in Figure 1.
Different variations of A* [24, 25, 26, 27, 28] have been presented to address these limitations in the development of grid-based heuristic planners. A variant of iterative-deepening depth-first search and A* called iterative-deepening A* (IDA*)  solves the issue of large memory requirements. However, it often ends up exploring the same nodes multiple times making it slower than A*. Another variant Theta*  was proposed to address the issue of a path constrained by the edges of the grid. However, Theta* [18, 26]-based variants use less memory than A* but are slower than A*. Another variant Field D* (FD*)  also does not constrain the path to the grid edges and the generated path also contains unnecessary turns. Two other new variants MEA*  and HPA*  use a process of pruning a planned path. The performance of MEA* is better than A* and HPA* and requires less memory and calculation time . The guaranteed optimality of grid-based algorithms such as A* is ensured up to the grid resolution. As the grid dimension increases, the running time of grid-based algorithms also increases significantly .
Sampling-based algorithms such as RRT  and RRT*  have gained much success due to their suitability for high-dimensional complex problems. Karaman et al.  proved the asymptotic optimal properties of RRT*. RRT* very quickly discovers the initial path and then improves its quality in successive iterations. This creates a near-optimal path as the number of iterations approaches infinity. It becomes suitable for real-time applications due to its asymptotic optimal property. However, its convergence rate is slower than the basic RRT because it requires more iterations to optimize the first path [3, 13]. Another RRT* variant named RRT*-Smart  solves this issue to some extent and
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