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A study on gains and losses of ecosystem service value of land consolidation projects of different properties in Hubei Province: an empirical comparison based on plains, mountains and hills.
Xinhai Lu 1 , Bin Jiang 1 , Mingqing Liu 2, * , Yuying Li 3 and Danling Chen 3
Pictured From Left To Right Are Cmdr. Gail Chapman, Usa Medical Research And Materiel Command, Capt. Mary Seymour, Commanding Officer, Naval Medical Logistics Command, Command Master Chief Hospital Corpsman David Hall And
Received: 13 June 2022 / Revised: 26 June 2022 / Accepted: 29 June 2022 / Published: 4 July 2022
This paper uses a modified ecosystem service value estimation model to quantitatively assess the change patterns of the ecosystem service value (ESV) of land, taking into account the differences in land use structure and ecological ecological changes caused by land consolidation projects with different characteristics and landforms. Consolidation, development and adjustment projects in Hubei province under the plains, hills and mountains to provide a theoretical basis for the ecological transformation of land consolidation. Compared with the pre-land consolidation period, the results show that (1) the total amount of ESV in the land consolidation project areas increased, while the land development and adjustment project areas decreased. In the same manner, the growth rate of land consolidation project areas is as follows: hills < plains plains > hills and hills > mountains > plains, respectively. Under the same topography, the total loss rate of ESV in land development plan areas is slightly lower than that in land adjustment plan areas. (2) The amount of total ESV in the land consolidation project areas under different characteristics and landscapes of the supply service function shows a decreasing trend, and the total ESV amount of the adjustment service, support service, and cultural service function shows an increasing trend. In Land Consolidation Project areas, land development and adjustment project areas show a declining trend. There is a clear value transformation process of “environment for production” in the land development and planning sectors.
Land consolidation; ecosystem service value; land development; land arrangement; land consolidation; China’s land consolidation; ecosystem service value; land development; land arrangement; land consolidation; China
Ecosystem services can be viewed as a complex process that helps humans obtain certain environmental benefits from ecosystem structures, processes, and activities to meet their survival needs . Ecosystem service value (ESV) represents the economic value of an ecosystem’s service activities [ 2 ], which plays a crucial role in promoting harmony between humans and nature and establishing a green national financial accounting system [ 3 , 4 ]. Costanza et al. (1997) divided global terrestrial ecosystem functions into 17 categories and estimated global ecosystem service values by establishing a value equal to the value of ecosystem services per unit area to lay the foundation for future studies in the ESV field. In recent years, many scholars have adopted several methods to assess the ESV of global, regional, and watershed ecosystems and individual ecosystems (e.g., forests, wetlands, grasslands). , travel cost method, hedonic value method and opportunity cost method [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. Existing research has investigated many driving factors of ESV, such as rapid urbanization [ 11 , 12 , 13 ], land use change [ 14 , 15 ], spatial structure, and changes in natural landscape [ 16 , 17 ]. Therefore, ESV is one of the burning topics in the field of environmental economics and environmental economics [ 18 , 19 ].
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Land is the carrier of terrestrial ecosystems, and changing its land-use structure can affect ecosystems, which may harm the gains and losses of ESV [ 20 ]. Land consolidation is a comprehensive biological and engineering process of fields, water, roads, forests and villages. The implementation of land consolidation can inevitably change the composition or patterns of local land use, thus affecting some environmental factors (e.g., soil , water , vegetation , atmosphere , biodiversity ), and local ecosystems and their processes. Landscape patterns that have a direct or indirect positive or negative impact [26, 27] [28, 29, 30]. Therefore, how to effectively evaluate the environmental changes in land consolidation project areas is helpful to promote the ecological transformation of land consolidation and improve the local ecological environment. For example, remote sensing By introducing the environmental index (RSEI) and building an environmental quality change assessment model, some scholars have revealed the time-varying pattern of the impact of land consolidation on regional ecological environmental quality [31, 32, 33]. Feng et al.  in four aspects. (dam safety, slope stability, efficient farming, effective management) established a quantitative evaluation model of environmental security effects, and scientifically measured the environmental security effects of the land consolidation area. In recent years, some scholars have also assessed the environmental impacts of land consolidation by quantifying the gains and losses of ESV in land consolidation project areas. For example, some scholars adopted the equal correction method and the single service evaluation method to evaluate the gains and losses of ESV in land consolidation project areas from the perspective of landscape type, regional scale, project type, and consolidation pattern, and they proposed an environmental protection. Road to land reclamation areas [35, 36, 37, 38, 39]. Song et al. [ 40 ] investigated the effects of land consolidation on mechanisms of synergistic synergies and trade-offs between three ecosystem services (crop productivity, carbon storage, and soil conservation). However, existing research ignores that the meaning of land consolidation includes the concepts of land replenishment, development and adjustment. Thus, the gains and losses of ESV have been neglected, and existing research cannot demonstrate systematic results in the area.
From the literature , land adjustment is known as the act of taking administrative, economic and legal measures to comprehensively improve fields, water, roads, forests and villages in a given area. Adjust and convert land use regulations; redistribution of land resources; improving land quality and land use efficiency; increase effective cultivable land; Improving productivity, living conditions and environmental conditions. Land development is the act of making unused land available through engineering, biological or holistic measures. Land consolidation is the act of rehabilitating land damaged by production and construction activities and making natural disaster areas available by adopting comprehensive remedial measures. There are some commonalities and differences between the impacts of land use, development and reclamation on the local ecological environment. For example, corridor width and connectivity in the project area are increased, and landscape fractal dimension is reduced after land adjustment and reclamation. The largest patch area increases and decreases in land adjustment and recovery project area, respectively. Moreover, patch density, biodiversity, and ESV decrease slightly in the land consolidation area, while showing a slight increase in the land consolidation project area [ 42 , 43 ]. Although the amount of cultivated land is increased during land development, it reduces the original surface landscape diversity and ecosystem stability, which is not sustainable . Consequently, it is of theoretical and practical importance to conduct a comparative study of the gains and losses of ESV of land consolidation projects with different characteristics.
Hubei Province is one of the key strategic areas of land consolidation in China. According to the geomorphic types, the land consolidation in Hubei Province can be divided into three types, namely eastern Hubei (hills) with low mountains and hills, central Hubei (plains) with plains, and western Hubei plateaus and mountainous regions (mountains) . There are some studies
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