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Ermc Iii Property Management Company Llc – Resistance genes, plasmids, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and phenotypic resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolated from slaughter chickens in Burkina Faso

A survey on the rational use of antimicrobial agents in small animal clinics and farms in Trinidad and Jamaica

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Effect of growth medium and inoculum size on the pharmacodynamic activity of marbofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from caprine clinical mastitis.

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Tonatiuh Melgarejo 1, * , Nathan Sharp 1 , Janina A. Krumbeck 2 , Guangxi Wu 2 , Young J. Kim 1 and Annika Linde 1, *

Veterinary Clinical Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, 611 E. Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA

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Received: 1 May 2022 / Revised: 2 June 2022 / Accepted: 2 June 2022 / Published: 8 June 2022

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An interdisciplinary approach to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is needed to effectively address what is soon to be a public health disaster. Veterinary medicine is mostly for antibiotic use and primarily for the support of industrial food animal production (IFAP), which has significant consequences for humans and nonhuman animals. Companion dogs live in close proximity to humans and share environmental exposures with food sources. The aim of this study is to elucidate the presence of AMR-genes in microorganisms recovered from urine from clinically healthy dogs to shed light on public health considerations within a species-wide framework. Urine was collected by cystocentesis from 50 companion dogs in Southern California and analyzed for microbial DNA using next-generation sequencing. Thirteen AMR genes were detected in the urine of 48% of dogs. The most common AMR genes were Aph(3′)Ia, and ermB, which confer resistance to aminoglycosides and MLS (macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins) antibiotics, respectively. Antibiotic-resistance profiles based on detected AMR genes, and resistance profiles within bacterial species were predicted in 24% of samples for 57 species, most of which belong to the genera Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Corynebacterium. The presence of AMR genes conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics suggests that dogs may serve as a reservoir of clinically relevant resistomes, possibly originating in the excessive IFAP antibiotic use.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global health burden, with an annual death toll close to 750,000, which is expected to reach 10 million by 2050 [ 1 ]. Morbidity and death from AMR account for approximately 3 million cases and 40,000 deaths annually in the United States (US), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has defined AMR as a national health emergency [ 2 ]. In this post-antibiotic era, officials are encouraged to rethink how society addresses AMR. Relying solely on additional antibiotic development is a flawed strategy as the pipeline is running dry with limited capital for research and development. If essentially all antibiotics become ineffective in fighting infections, the estimated cumulative cost to global economic output is USD 100 trillion [1]. Human health concerns are front and center; However, recognizing AMR as a species-wide problem is important if the goal is to identify sustainable solutions to combat this threat. Antibiotic stewardship requires an interprofessional approach as veterinary applications account for 80% of antibiotic use [3]. Waste from factory farms is released untreated into the environment, posing a health risk to organisms exposed to environmental antibiotic residues and other pollutants. Furthermore, individuals vulnerable to environmental contamination may serve as AMR reservoirs [ 4 ]. AMR has received limited attention in companion animals, including dogs, which typically live as integrated family members. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in cultures has been reported in urine from clinically healthy dogs and from dogs with cystitis [5]. Furthermore, AMR in dogs with urinary tract infections has increased significantly over the past two decades [6]. Additional insights into patterns of AMR in companion dogs are relevant because they represent an important therapeutic limitation in veterinary medicine and a risk factor for AMR spillover. Precautions are taken when handling samples from dogs with clinical disease; However, clients and clinicians may pay less attention in the context of clinically healthy individuals. Pathogens are readily detected in the urine microbiome of clinically healthy dogs with negative urine cultures [ 7 ]. As a result, inadequate sanitation measures may increase the risk of microbial AMR transmission among people. Insights into microbial resistomes for resistance to AMR are of interest. The aim of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the prevalence of urinary tract AMR in healthy companion dogs. The presence of AMR bacteria that do not cause disease in dogs is of interest because these microbes may serve as an AMR-gene reservoir for bacteria with pathogenic potential for humans and dogs.

Thirteen AMR genes were detected in urine bacteriome samples from 24 dogs (Figure 1). Interestingly, four samples contained three AMR genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, tetracycline and sulfonamide antibiotics (Figure 1).

The most common AMR genes are the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene (aph(3′)Ia), which confers resistance to aminoglycosides (11 samples) and the ermB gene, which confers resistance to MLS (macrolides, lincosamides) samples (antiapoptotic7). ), as shown in Table 1. Six different AMR genes confer resistance to MLS, while two different AMR genes confer resistance to aminoglycosides. Thirteen samples contained AMR genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and fourteen samples MLS (Table 1).

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Antibiotic-resistance profiles based on detected AMR genes and intrinsic resistance profiles of bacterial species were estimated for 57 species in 12 samples (Table 2), including mostly Streptococcus (9), Staphylococcus (8) and Corynebacterium (7). ) generation. The most intrinsic resistance was observed for nalidixic acid (42), neomycin, amikacin and gentamicin (15). Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an MDR pathogen associated with severe human infection, was identified in the urine of two dogs (the pathogen showed intrinsic resistance to 20 antibiotics), as well as an AMR gene that conferred resistance against sulfonamides in one of the dogs.

Since the discovery of penicillin in 1929, the world has relied on antibiotics to treat infections. A century later, instead of overcoming infectious diseases, antibiotic resistance has increased and has become one of the most serious threats to global health [8]. Bacteria have an impressive ability to respond effectively to attacks from their microenvironment. These resistances to antibiotics are based on intrinsic and acquired resistance. Inherent resistance in a bacterial species is innate based on its inherent structural or functional characteristics (ie, lack of antibiotic target, innate efflux pump, drug inactivation/degradation) and is vertically passed, is the focus of this discussion. Evolutionary pressures (ie, inappropriate use of antibiotics) lead to an increase in genetically acquired resistance in bacterial populations. When exposed to antibiotics, many bacteria use cellular mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer (conjugation, transformation, transduction) and mobile genetic elements (plasmids, transposons, insertion sequences, integrons, integrative-conjugative elements), to adapt and survive [9]. . It is because of this ability that bacteria have developed resistance to different antibiotics. Resistomes have evolved as a result of the bacteria’s ability to acquire these genes from related genera and bacterial taxa (phylum, class, order, family). The term “resistance” was coined in 2006 and there have been many studies describing the presence of resistance genes in different environments [10]. However, dogs have received limited attention as a reservoir of clinically relevant resistomes. There are approximately 77 million dogs and 58 million cats in American households, making the United States the most companion-animal-oriented society in the world [11]. This is the first report of urinary immunity in clinically healthy dogs. The term “clinically healthy dogs” is defined herein as a complete physical and behavioral condition based on the history provided by the client.

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